Relative entropy has played a significant role in various fields of mathematics and physics as the quantum version of the Kullback-Leibler divergence in classical theory. Many variations of relative entropy have been introduced so far with applications to quantum information and related subjects. Typical examples are three different classes, called the standard, the maximal, and the measured f-divergences, all of which are defined in terms of (operator) convex functions f on (0,8) and have respective mathematical and information theoretical backgrounds. The a-Rényi relative entropy and its new version called the sandwiched a-Rényi relative entropy have also been useful in recent developments of quantum information.
In the first half of this monograph, the different types of quantum f-divergences and the Rényi-type divergences mentioned above in the general von Neumann algebra setting are presented for study. While quantum information has been developing mostly in the finite-dimensional setting, it is widely believed that von Neumann algebras provide the most suitable framework in studying quantum information and related subjects. Thus, the advance of quantum divergences in von Neumann algebras will be beneficial for further development of quantum information.
Quantum divergences are functions of two states (or more generally, two positive linear functionals) on a quantum system and measure the difference between the two states. They are often utilized to address such problems as state discrimination, error correction, and reversibility of quantum operations. In the second half of the monograph, the reversibility/sufficiency theory for quantum operations (quantum channels) between von Neumann algebras via quantum f-divergences is explained, thus extending and strengthening Petz' previous work.
For the convenience of the reader, an appendix including concise accounts of von Neumann algebras is provided.
This monograph focuses on the mathematical and numerical analysis of simplicial partitions and the finite element method. This active area of research has become an essential part of physics and engineering, for example in the study of problems involving heat conduction, linear elasticity, semiconductors, Maxwell's equations, Einstein's equations and magnetic and gravitational fields.
These problems require the simulation of various phenomena and physical fields over complicated structures in three (and higher) dimensions. Since not all structures can be decomposed into simpler objects like d-dimensional rectangular blocks, simplicial partitions are important. In this book an emphasis is placed on angle conditions guaranteeing the convergence of the finite element method for elliptic PDEs with given boundary conditions.
It is aimed at a general mathematical audience who is assumed to be familiar with only a few basic results from linear algebra, geometry, and mathematical and numerical analysis.
The package of Gromov's pseudo-holomorphic curves is a major tool in global symplectic geometry and its applications, including mirror symmetry and Hamiltonian dynamics. The Kuranishi structure was introduced by two of the authors of the present volume in the mid-1990s to apply this machinery on general symplectic manifolds without assuming any specific restrictions. It was further amplified by this book's authors in their monograph Lagrangian Intersection Floer Theory and in many other publications of theirs and others. Answering popular demand, the authors now present the current book, in which they provide a detailed, self-contained explanation of the theory of Kuranishi structures.
Part I discusses the theory on a single space equipped with Kuranishi structure, called a K-space, and its relevant basic package. First, the definition of a K-space and maps to the standard manifold are provided. Definitions are given for fiber products, differential forms, partitions of unity, and the notion of CF-perturbations on the K-space. Then, using CF-perturbations, the authors define the integration on K-space and the push-forward of differential forms, and generalize Stokes' formula and Fubini's theorem in this framework. Also, "virtual fundamental class" is defined, and its cobordism invariance is proved.
Part II discusses the (compatible) system of K-spaces and the process of going from "geometry" to "homological algebra". Thorough explanations of the extension of given perturbations on the boundary to the interior are presented. Also explained is the process of taking the "homotopy limit" needed to handle a system of infinitely many moduli spaces. Having in mind the future application of these chain level constructions beyond those already known, an axiomatic approach is taken by listing the properties of the system of the relevant moduli spaces and then a self-contained account of the construction of the associated algebraic structures is given. This axiomatic approach makes the exposition contained here independent of previously published construction of relevant structures.
Environmental chemistry is a fast developing science aimed at deciphering fundamental mechanisms ruling the behaviour of pollutants in ecosystems. Applying this knowledge to current environmental issues leads to the remediation of environmental media, and to new, low energy, low emission, sustainable processes. Chapters review analysis and remediation of pollutants such as greenhouse gases, chiral pharmaceuticals, dyes, chlorinated organics, arsenic, toxic metals and pathogen in air, water, plant and soil. Several highlights include the overlooked impact of air pollutants from buildings for health risk, innovative remediation techniques such as bioreactors for gas treatment, electrochemical cleaning of pharmaceuticals, sequestration on Fe-Mn nodules, phytoremediation and photocatalytical inactivation of microbial pathogens. This book will be a valuable source of information for engineers and students developing novel applied techniques to monitor and clean pollutants in air, wastewater, soils and sediments.
This book offers a wide-ranging and up-to-date overview of the basic science underlying PET and
its preclinical and clinical applications in modern medicine. In addition, it provides the reader with a sound understanding of the scientific principles and use of PET in routine practice and biomedical imaging research. The opening sections address the fundamental physics, radiation safety, CT scanning dosimetry, and dosimetry of PET radiotracers, chemistry and regulation of PET radiopharmaceuticals, with information on labeling strategies, tracer quality control, and regulation of radiopharmaceutical production in Europe and the United States. PET physics and instrumentation are then discussed, covering the basic principles of PET and PET scanning systems, hybrid PET/CT and PET/MR imaging, system calibration, acceptance testing, and quality control. Subsequent sections focus on image reconstruction, processing, and quantitation in PET and hybrid PET and on imaging artifacts and correction techniques, with particular attention to partial volume correction and motion artifacts. The book closes by examining clinical applications of PET and hybrid PET and their physiological and/or molecular basis in conjunction with technical foundations in the disciplines of oncology, cardiology and neurology, PET in pediatric malignancy and its role in radiotherapy treatment planning. Basic Science of PET Imaging will meet the needs of nuclear medicine practitioners, other radiology specialists, and trainees in these fields.
This book provides a concise introduction to convex duality in financial mathematics. Convex duality plays an essential role in dealing with financial problems and involves maximizing concave utility functions and minimizing convex risk measures. Recently, convex and generalized convex dualities have shown to be crucial in the process of the dynamic hedging of contingent claims. Common underlying principles and connections between different perspectives are developed; results are illustrated through graphs and explained heuristically. This book can be used as a reference and is aimed toward graduate students, researchers and practitioners in mathematics, finance, economics, and optimization. Topics include: Markowitz portfolio theory, growth portfolio theory, fundamental theorem of asset pricing emphasizing the duality between utility optimization and pricing by martingale measures, risk measures and its dual representation, hedging and super-hedging and its relationship with linear programming duality and the duality relationship in dynamic hedging of contingent claims
Composite structures and products have developed tremendously since the publication of the first edition of this work in 1986. This new edition of the now classic 1986 text has been written to educate the engineering reader in the various aspects of mechanics for using composite materials in the design and analysis of composite structures and products. Areas dealt with include manufacture, micromechanical properties, structural design, joints and bonding and a much needed introduction to composite design philosophy. Each chapter is concluded by numerous problems suitable for home assignments or examination. A solution guide is available on request from the authors.
About this book In the last century developments in mathematics, philosophy, physics, computer science, economics and linguistics have proven important for the development of logic. There has been an influx of new ideas, concerns, and logical systems reflecting a great variety of reasoning tasks in the sciences. This volume reflects the multi-dimensional nature of the interplay between logic and science. It presents contributions from the world's leading scholars under the following headings: - Proof, Knowledge and Computation - Truth Values beyond Bivalence - Category-Theoretic Structures - Independence, Evaluation Games, and Imperfect Information - Dialogue and Pragmatics. The contents exemplify the liveliness of modern perspectives on the philosophy of logic and mathematics and demonstrate the growth of the discipline. It describes new trends, possible developments for research and new issues not normally raised in the standard agenda of the philosophy of logic and mathematics. It transforms rigid classical partitions into a more open field for improvisation. Written for: Logicians, philosophers, specialists of Cognitive Science and Computer Science, mathematicians, linguists Keywords: Foundations of Mathematics Games Logic Philosophy Semantics
This book is Open Access under a CC BY license.
This volume offers an essential resource for economic policymakers as well as students of development economics focusing on the interrelationships of migration, urbanization and poverty in Asia. The continent's recent demographic transitions and rural-urban structural transformations are extraordinary, and involve complexities that require in-depth study.
The chapters within this volume examine those complexities using a range of traditional and non-traditional measures, such as multidimensional poverty, gaps and polarization, to arrive at the conclusion that poverty is now an urban issue.
In short, the book will help students of development economics and policymakers understand the interrelationships between internal migration, urbanization and poverty, paving the way for the improved management of internal migration and disadvantaged and vulnerable populations.
This open access book provides a broad range of insights on market engineering and information management. It covers topics like auctions, stock markets, electricity markets, the sharing economy, information and emotions in markets, smart decision-making in cities and other systems, and methodological approaches to conceptual modeling and taxonomy development. Overall, this book is a source of inspiration for everybody working on the vision of advancing the science of engineering markets and managing information for contributing to a bright, sustainable, digital world.
Markets are powerful and extremely efficient mechanisms for coordinating individuals' and organizations' behavior in a complex, networked economy. Thus, designing, monitoring, and regulating markets is an essential task of today's society. This task does not only derive from a purely economic point of view. Leveraging market forces can also help to tackle pressing social and environmental challenges. Moreover, markets process, generate, and reveal information. This information is a production factor and a valuable economic asset. In an increasingly digital world, it is more essential than ever to understand the life cycle of information from its creation and distribution to its use. Both markets and the flow of information should not arbitrarily emerge and develop based on individual, profit-driven actors. Instead, they should be engineered to serve best the whole society's goals. This motivation drives the research fields of market engineering and information management.
With this book, the editors and authors honor Professor Dr. Christof Weinhardt for his enormous and ongoing contribution to market engineering and information management research and practice. It was presented to him on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday in April 2021. Thank you very much, Christof, for so many years of cooperation, support, inspiration, and friendship.
This book explores approaches to developing and using postdigital humans and the impact they are having on a postdigital world. It presents current research and practices at a time when education is changing rapidly with digital, technological advances. In particular, it outlines the major challenges faced by today's employers, developers, teachers, researchers, priests and philosophers. The book examines conceptions of postdigital humans and studies the issue in connection with ethics and employment, as well as from perspectives such as philosophy and religion.
This volume presents the proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Vibration Conference (APVC) 2019, "Vibration Engineering for a Sustainable Future," emphasizing work devoted to experimental methods and verification. The APVC is one of the larger conferences held biannually with the intention to foster scientific and technical research collaboration among Asia-Pacific countries. The APVC provides a forum for researchers, practitioners, and students from, but not limited to, areas around the Asia-Pacific countries in a collegial and stimulating environment to present, discuss and disseminate recent advances and new findings on all aspects of vibration and noise, their control and utilization. All aspects of vibration, acoustics, vibration and noise control, vibration utilization, fault diagnosis and monitoring are appropriate for the conference, with the focus this year on the vibration aspects in dynamics and noise & vibration. This 18th edition of the APVC was held in November 2019 in Sydney, Australia. The previous seventeen conferences have been held in Japan (`85, '93, `07), Korea ('87, '97, `13), China ('89, '01, '11, `17), Australia ('91, `03), Malaysia ('95, `05), Singapore (`99), New Zealand (`09) and Vietnam (`15).
This volume examines the psychological factors, environments, and social factors contributing to identification with extremist identities and ideologies. Incorporating recent findings on interpersonal relationships, emotions, and social identity, the book aims to improve understanding of what makes individuals vulnerable to extremism. It concludes with a discussion of the intricacies of identification with extremist groups, a proposal for de-radicalization, and a call for awareness as a means to resist polarization. Chapters highlight interdisciplinary research into specific concepts and behaviors that can lead to extremism, addressing topics such as:? Homogamy, tribalism and the desire to belong? Shared hatred in strong group identities? The impact of emotional contagion on personal relationships? Dehumanization across political party linesAn in-depth exploration of an increasingly divisive modern issue, The Psychology of Extremism is an essential resource for researchers and students across social psychology, sociology, political psychology, and political science.
This book offers a systematic review of the cutting-edge knowledge in stress medicine. Cellular redox imbalance, resulting from overproduction of reactive oxide species (ROS), leads to oxidative stress and subsequent occurrence and development of many diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, pain, etc. In addition, ROS can induce post-translational modification of proteins and play roles through redox signaling pathways. In this book, the authors attempt to re-define the key concepts in oxidative stress, such as oxidative eustress and oxidative distress, revisit the pivotal signaling of oxidative stress in human diseases, and discuss the debate in current anti-oxidant strategies, such as natural products and drug repurposing. This book serves as a reference to graduate students and researchers in this growing field.
The purpose of this book is to discuss the relationship between information and distribution, with special reference to the role of the merchant in a market economy under conditions of risk and uncertainty. By working with simple models of the market economy and conducting a sequence of comparative analyses, the authors shed new light on an important yet rather neglected area in economics. In a historical perspective, the merchants of Ohmi, the former name of Shiga Prefecture in western Japan, are known to have put great faith in the principles of Sampo Yoshi or the all-around advantages of trading. It is hoped that the results presented in this book will provide some solid ground for such an old principle that can be seen in a new light. Applications to regional and many related problems are also discussed here. A distribution system is broadly defined as the systematic mechanisms and structures that regulate business operations, and its function is to maximize corporate value. Some of the following functions have previously been identified as distinguishing features of the Japanese distribution system compared with distribution systems in Europe and the United States: not only transactions, transportation, and storage, but also information, risk-bearing functions, and other characteristics. This book provides an overview of the distribution system in Japan, including changes that its practice have undergone and its current state; identifies current problems; and considers how these problems should be addressed.
This book covers the selection of nanocomposite supercapacitor materials. It describes the most important criteria behind the selection of materials for the electrode, electrolytes, separator and current collectors, which comprise the key components of supercapacitors for advanced energy storage. It discusses the influence on each material on the unique electrochemical properties of nanocomposite supercapacitors with respect to their energy storage mechanism and stability under extreme and unpredictable conditions.This book is part of the Handbook of Nanocomposite Supercapacitor Materials. Supercapacitors have emerged as promising devices for electrochemical energy storage, playing an important role in energy harvesting for meeting the current demands of increasing global energy consumption. The handbook covers the materials science and engineering of nanocomposite supercapacitors, ranging from their general characteristics and performance to materials selection, design and construction. Covering both fundamentals and recent developments, this handbook serves a readership encompassing students, professionals and researchers throughout academia and industry, particularly in the fields of materials chemistry, electrochemistry, and energy storage and conversion. It is ideal as a reference work and primary resource for any introductory senior-level undergraduate or beginning graduate course covering supercapacitors.
This book covers newly emerging two-dimensional nanomaterials which have been recently used for the purpose of water purification. It focuses on the synthesis methods of 2D materials and answers how scientists/engineers/nanotechnologist/environmentalists could use these materials for fabricating new separation membranes and most probably making commercially feasible technology. The chapters are written by a collection of international experts ensuring a broad view of each topic. The book will be of interest to experienced researchers as well as young scientists looking for an introduction into 2D materials-based cross-disciplinary research.
?This book covers the theory, design and applications of computer networks, distributed computing and information systems. Networks of today are going through a rapid evolution, and there are many emerging areas of information networking and their applications. Heterogeneous networking supported by recent technological advances in low-power wireless communications along with silicon integration of various functionalities such as sensing, communications, intelligence and actuations is emerging as a critically important disruptive computer class based on a new platform, networking structure and interface that enable novel, low-cost and high-volume applications. Several of such applications have been difficult to realize because of many interconnections problems. To fulfill their large range of applications, different kinds of networks need to collaborate, and wired and next-generation wireless systems should be integrated in order to develop high-performance computing solutions to problems arising from the complexities of these networks.
The aim of the book "Advanced Information Networking and Applications" is to provide latest research findings, innovative research results, methods and development techniques from both theoretical and practical perspectives related to the emerging areas of information networking and applications.
This book is the first ever to offer a contemporary collection of different perspectives on person-centredness in international doctoral nursing research. The research in the book is based on the ideas and values of personhood and person-centeredness, which have been used and can be seen to guide research approaches, inform research designs and theorize research findings. Further, a specific framework for person-centred nursing is embedded throughout the research studies presented in the text. The Person-centred Nursing Framework (PCNF) developed by Brendan McCormack and Tanya McCance in 2010, is recognized as a nursing theory and this book further develops it as a basis for research and for advancing person-centredness in nursing. The framework informs all stages of the research process, from design through to dissemination.The book is structured into a number of highly engaging chapters written by doctoral candidates, and recently graduated candidates. The opening and closing chapters, written by the editors, place the subsequent chapters in a global context of person-centredness and nursing. The potential for person-centred nursing research to be a global movement is recognized and debated. The subsequent chapters lead readers through philosophical ideas, methodologies and methods whilst also offering reflective and honest insights into learning how to become a person-centred researcher. This field is growing and developing but yet there is no specific book available. As a result, researchers spend considerable time and effort translating existing research methodologies into person-centred perspectives. This book fills this gap and acts as a key resource for future nurse researchers. The text is intended for, and benefits nursing doctoral candidates, masters candidates and academic staff who teach and supervise research candidates; it may also appeal to other graduate learners. The book has international contributions which makes it appealing internationally.
This book focuses on knowledge management and learning organizations, showing how they realise entrepreneurship and innovation. Understanding knowledge management as the process of creating, sharing and managing an organization's information and knowledge, and focusing learning organizations in their collaborations to promote continuous learning are two issues that are critical to the organizational success. As such, this book offers insights into the topic and the appropriate use of the tools and strategies that drive competitive organizations operating on an international or transnational scale.
EtYIL 2019 comes out while the world is in the midst of a new coronavirus pandemic that has infected millions and killed thousands of people without distinction as to age, race, colour, or creed. As an attack on all humanity, Covid-19, the disease caused by the coronavirus, has challenged the fitness of the global order as never before, and its institutional and normative frameworks have been found wanting. As is often the case in such circumstances, when the WHO is denied resources to assist those countries or the WTO is unable to guarantee access to Covid-19 medical supplies and protective equipment, it is the poorest nations that suffer the most. EtYIL's mission is to provide a platform for purpose-oriented scholarly analysis and debate on issues of particular significance for African countries such as Covid-19, disputes over Nile water resources, and Ethiopia-Eritrea relations. Although the pandemic came too late for this issue of EtYIL, we have managed to include two important articles that examine the subject from geostrategic and legal perspectives. EtYIL 2019 also addresses a number of other topical issues, including the responsibility of the UN Security Council (UNSC) in climate-related risks to least developed countries, the Global South's approach to environmental protection, the challenges of international regulation of arms brokering, and the contributions of Martin Luther King, Jr. to Pan-Africanism and international human rights law. Finally, the Yearbook also continues its coverage of regional issues such as the evolving Ethiopia-Eritrea relations, Djibouti's accession to the ICSID Convention; the trilateral negotiations between Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt over the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam and the U.S. meddling and the role of the UNSC on the issue have also been covered. As before, our contributors come from all over the world, to all of whom we extend our sincere appreciations.
This book provides a complete and current overview of the correlation between ocean conditions and human health, publishing comprehensively for the first time on the direct interactions among oceanography, marine biology and impacts on human health. Specifically the text addresses how changing ocean conditions result in health impacts and disruptions, with a focus on cases in the USA. The changing ocean conditions that are discussed include diminishing marine biodiversity, climactic changes such as intensified weather events, shifting sea currents and increasing sea temperature. The book addresses the resulting health issues brought about by these various ocean conditions, such as emerging infectious diseases, starvation and poisoning among impacted communities, toxic algae blooms, threatened ecosystems, and other future implications. The text was developed in conjunction with scientists from Brown University, the University of Rhode Island, the University of Texas at Austin, the University of California at Riverside and Ochsner Health, all located in areas deeply impacted by the changing Oceans. The book will be of interest to marine research scientists, health care professionals, students, and general enthusiasts of oceanography and health.
This book presents a new view of the mechanism of functional expression of ATP-driven motors (proteins or protein complexes). It is substantially different from the prevailing idea that the motor converts chemical energy to mechanical work. To facilitate understanding, the differences between the new and prevailing views are explained using many illustrations. The book is of interest to those who are not convinced of the notion of chemo-mechanical coupling. The claims presented are the following: The system, which comprises not only the motor but also water, does no mechanical work during the ATP hydrolysis cycle; a protein is moved or a protein in the complex is rotated by the entropic force generated by water. The highlight of the explanation in the book is that the mechanism of unidirectional rotation of the central shaft in F1-ATPase is discussed in detail on the basis of this new view. The hydration entropy of each ß subunit to which a specific chemical compound (ATP, ADP and Pi, Pi, or nothing) is bound, the hydration entropy of the a3ß3 complex, and the dependence of the hydration entropy of F1-ATPase on the orientation of the ? subunit play essential roles.
This book provides a comprehensive, single-source on resonant switched-capacitor converters. It is written in the style of a handbook, with systematic guidelines, and includes implementation examples. The authors explore integrated hybrid resonant DCDC converters in order to achieve highly compact, energy ef?cient and cost-effective power management solutions in the growing fields of wearables and internet-of-things applications. They provide an introduction into hybrid converters as a new and promising converter class, which merges capacitive and inductive conversion concepts into one. Coverage ranges from fundamentals to implementation details, including topics such as power stage design, gate drive schemes, different control mechanisms for resonant operation and integrated passives.Introduces a new, multi-ratio resonant converter architecture, which enables lower switching frequencies and better passive component utilization;Discusses circuit block design for high ef?ciency of the power stage;Explores implementation details and concepts for integrated passives;Derives models, implements and compares to each other different control mechanisms.